Agriculture is the main base of our daily life. All the thinks directly on indirectly depend on the agriculture in the world. It is a big sector of life. Agriculture Definition, Importance and Branches of Agriculture are described very clearly on bellow.
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The term ”Agriculture” is derived from the Latin word “ager’or “agri” meaning “soil” and “cultura” meaning cultivation.
So, Agriculture means the cultivation of the soil. But in reality agriculture is NOT confined in soil cultivation alone; it includes all aspects of crop production, livestock farming, fisheries forestry etc.
“Agriculture is the science and art of farming including the work of cultivating the soil, producing crops, planting forest plants/trees, raising livestock and rearing fishes.”
The Greek “geoponic” (cultivation in earth), “hydroponic”
(Cultivation in water) and “aeroponic” (cultivation in air) refer to the three main spheres of agriculture.
Definition of Agriculture by Monteith’s (1958):
“Agriculture is an exploitation of solar energy made possible by an adequate supply of water and nutrients to maintain plant growth.”
The word agriculture thus may be expanded as-
“Activities on the Ground for Raising Integrated Crops for Uplifting Livelihood Through the Use of Rechargeable Energies.”
Agriculture encompasses the applied aspects of the following basic sciences:
Agriculture is the most important enterprise in the world.
-In a true sense, it is a productive unit where the free gifts of nature—land, light, air, temperature, rainwater, humidity etc are integrated into a single primary unit (crop plants or their usable parts) indispensable for human beings.
-The secondary productive units namely, animals including livestock, birds and insects feed on these primary units and provide concentrated end products such as meat, milk, eggs, honey, wool, hide, silk and lac etc.
-Agriculture provides us food, feed, fiber, fuel, furniture, raw materials and feed –back materials for and from factories, funds and flood control. A free, fair and fresh environment, abundant food driving out famine and friendship eliminating fights.
-It also considers employment generation, economics, education, ecology, energy consumption, use of equipment, an earning for production, protection, processing, consumption, preservation and war against wastage, transport and trade.
-The cultural energies of production are draft power, farm equipment, irrigation water, fertilizers and manures, chemicals (herbicides/pesticides/growth hormones) and electricity for preservation.
(including marine culture)
Extension & Rural Sociology
|Veterinary / Animal husbandry|
|Horticulture||Pomology||Cows, buffaloes, horse|
|Plantation crops||Fruit Preservation||Goats, sheep|
|Spices and condiments||Olericulture||Poultry/hen duck/turkey|
|Agricultural Engineering||Arboriculture||Pisciculture/ fisheries|
Considering about Agriculture Definition, Importance and Branches of Agriculture, There have some negatives also. One of the central problems of agricultural meteorology is to understand the mechanism of energy exchange between plants and physical environment. To seek means for improving the efficiency of energy and water use by plants.
Here come the concepts of improving plant types and cultural manipulation for maximizing the photosynthesis (a balance between the source and sink relationship)