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Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit:

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

Important of Guava:

  • It claims to be the 5th most important fruits in area and production after banana, mango, pineapple and jackfruit.
  • In Bangladesh annual production of guava is 146 thousand tons of fruits (BBS, 2006).
  • Rich in C (two to five times more than fresh orange juice) and pectin.
  • Required 50 mg vitamin C /day/person. More than 93% of the people are suffering from vitamin C deficiency.
  • Contains water 82.50%, calcium 20 mg, iron 104 mg, carbohydrate 15.2 g, total soluble solids 9.73% and Vitamin C 210 mg/100 gm.
  • Pink-fleshed varieties are less rich in Vitamin C.
  • Firm ripe fruit is richer in Vitamin C than those of fully ripe or over-ripe fruits.

Nutrient value of guava:

Nutrients Apple/100 g Orange/100 g Guava/100 g
Water (g) 81 89.4 82.4
Fat 0.3 0.1 0.6
Ash (g) 1.0 0.3 5.2
Calorie (kcal) 76 43 76
Protein (g) 0.4 0.7 1.4
Carbohydrate (g) 18.1 9.7 15.2
Calcium (mg) 20 22 20
Iron (mg) 100
Vitamin C (mg) 4 40 210

Use

  • It is mainly used in many countries as a dessert.
  • It can be used in preparing jam, jelly, marmalade and juice.
  • Excellent salad can be prepared from ripe fruits.
  • Leaves are used for curing diarrhea and for dyeing and tanning.

Cultivar

  • Swarupkathi, Kanchannagar and Mukundapuri.
  • BARI developed Kazi Peyara, BARI Peyara–2 and BARI Peyara-3.
  • BSMRAU released IPSA Peyara-1.
  • BAU released 6 varieties namely BAU Peyara-1 (Misti), 2 (Ranga), 3 (Choudhury), 4 (Apel), 5 (Oval), 6 (Jelly)
  • Mukundapuri is recommended for Comilla and Brahmanbaria.
  • Swarupkathi for Barisal and Khulna and Kanchannagar for Chittagong region.
  • Kazi Peyara, BARI Peyara – 2 and BARI Peyara – 3 are suitable for all over the country except saline area.

Local cultivar

  • Smaller in size
  • Very good in taste with pleasant flavour
  • Pulp is soft and juicy
  • Lower shelf life (2-3 days)
  • Fruiting: Once in a year

Kazi Peyara

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

  • High yielding
  • Fruiting : Twice in a year
  • White fleshed, crispy, slightly sour
  • TSS : 0%
  • Yield : 28 t/ha
  • It can be stored for 7-10 days at room temperature
  • Commercial cultivation: All over the country
  • Fruit wt. 400-500g

BARI Peyara-2

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

  • High yielding
  • Fruiting : Twice in a year
  • White fleshed, crispy, sweet
  • TSS :  10.0%
  • Yield : 30 t/ha
  • It can be stored for 5-7 days at room temperature
  • Fruit wt. 350g
  • Commercial cultivation:
  •  All over the country

BARI Peyara-3

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

  • High yielding red fleshed variety
  • Fruits are medium (175g)
  • TSS- 7.0%
  • Suitable for processing
  • Recommended for cultivating allover Bangladesh
  • Yield: 15t/ha
  • Fruit wt. 175 g

Soil:

  • Grown in deep, well drained soils, high in organic matter.
  • Fairly salt and drought resistant and pH 4.5 to 8.2.

Climate:

  • Successfully grown under tropical and subtropical climates.
  • It can be grown 1500 m altitude from sea level .
  • Rainfall ranges from 1000 to 2000 mm.
  • Optimum temperature lies between 230C to 280C.

Propagation:

  • Propagated by both sexual and asexual methods (cutting, layering, budding and grafting).
  • Seed propagation and air-layering are very common.

Planting:

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

  • Pits of 60cm x 60cm x 45cm in hexagonal or square system.
  • Contour system in hilly areas.
  • Pits filled with 20kg cowdung, 250g TSP and 250g MP mixed with surface soil.
  • Gootees are usually planted at monsoons i.e. May – June.
  • Planting continue at the end of the rainy season (Sept.)

Plant density:

  • Planting distance 4-6m, for close planting 3.0m.
  • Close planting increase yield but TSS reduces and acidity increases.

Water management:

  • In the early stage, require 8 to 10 irrigations/year.
  • Require irrigation at weekly intervals during December to April.
  • Ensures higher fruit set, reduce fruit drop and improve fruit size.

Manuring and Fertilization:

  • The fertilizers are applied in three installments- 33% in February, 33% in May-June and the remaining 34% in September.
  • The fertilizer is applied by spading or ploughing the soil around the plant up to the area shaded by the plant at noon.
  • The fertilizer is spread all over but about 0.5-1.0 m away from the trunk.
  • Irrigation may be required following fertilization.

Doses of Manures and Fertilizers :

Manure/ fertilizer 1-2 years 3-4 years 5-6 years 7 years to onward
Cowdung (kg) 10 20 30 40
Urea (g) 250 500 750 1000
TSP (g) 300 400 500 600
MP (g) 300 400 500 600
Gypsum 100 200 250 300
Zinc Sulphate 25 40 50 50

 

Inter-cropping:

  • Intercrop with pineapple, peas, gram, beans, papaya, turmeric, Ginger etc.
  • Guava can in turn be used as an intercrop for other large trees such as Mango, Jackfruit, Coconut etc.

Training and pruning:

  • To provide a strong framework and scaffold of branches.
  • The system of training is open centre, in which the plants are headed back.
  • Primary shoots are retained for the initial framework which are subsequently pruned one third to half after 3 months.
  • After making the initial framework, the two side shoots are permitted to grow initially and after 3-4 years, doubling of selected branches is continued.
  • As the flowers and fruits are borne on current season growth, thinning out is beneficial to encourage new shoots after harvest.
  • All dead, diseased, unproductive branches, crowded shoots and water sprouts should be pruned back annually.

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

Flowering:

  • Guava plants generally flower twice in a year viz: March/April and October/November
  • Provided manuring, water and other management are practiced at an optimum level.
  • Guava bears solitary flowers or in cymes of two to three flowers on current season’s growth in the axils of leaves.

Fruit thinning:

  • High yielding cultivars bear such heavy crops that many limbs are broken or badly bent.
  • Fruit thinning should be done in such a way that the tree will retain one fruit for every 50 leaves.

Fruit bagging:

  • Bagging at an early stage, found most effective against insect and disease infestation.
  • Protects the fruits from bird and bat damage.
  • Getting fruits of good shape and size using brown paper bags.

Pest and diseases of guava

Fruit fly:

Complete Cultivation Guide of Guava Fruit

The insect lays 150-200 eggs at a time inside the fruit inserting ovipositor at maturity stage. Eggs hatch within 2-3 days and start feeding on fruit pulp.

  • Fruit bagging is the most effective way to control the pest.
  • Damaging the infested fruits with insect.
  • Bait trap: 100g mashed banana + 5 g Mipsin 75 SP or Sevin 85 SP + 100 ml water. Trap material should be changed at every 3-5 days

Fruit borer:

The insect bores into the fruits at early stage and feed on the flesh and seeds. Infestation of the pest is more frequent in the hilly regions.

  • Fruit bagging is the most effective way to control the pest.
  • Damaging the infested fruits with insect.
  • Spraying Parfecthion 40 EC or Labacid 50 EC @ 1 ml per litre of water 2-3 times at 15 days interval.

Mealy bug, scale insect and white fly:

The insects suck on young shoots and leaves, secrete honey dew and create sooty mould.

  • Clean cultivation
  • Infested leaves and shoots should be pruned and damaged at early stage of infestation.
  • It can be controlled spraying Admire 200 SL @ 0.5 ml/L 2-3 times at 15 days interval.

Anthracnose:

  • Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides is serious disease of guava. The affected plants begin to die back from the top of the branch, while shoots, leaves and fruits are readily affected. The growing tips gradually turn dark brown and the black necrotic areas extend backward causing die back.
  • Collection and damaging of dead leaves and shoots
  • The disease can be controlled by spraying Topsin M-70 WP or Knowin 50 WP @ 2g, or Tilt 250 EC @ 0.5 ml per litre of water 3-4 times at an interval of 15 days.

Wilt:

The disease is caused by Fusarium. It is characterized by the yellowing of leaves followed by drying of leaves and twigs from the tip and complete wilting of plants within 10-15 days.

  • It is difficult to control the disease by chemical means.
  • Grafting onto resistant rootstocks like ‘poly peyara’ may prevent the disease.
  • Cultivation of resistant cultivars

Harvesting

  • When the fruit ripens, the green colour changes to yellowish green or yellow.
  • The fruit is harvested in July/August and February/March of the following year.
  • Guava is harvested by hand with proper care.

Yield  

  • Both Kazi peyara and BARI peyara-2 bear fruits from second year after planting.
  • But it is not desirable to allow fruits up to third year.
  • Economic yields are obtained from 5 to 6 years onward.

Fruit is very important for our health. There are many types of fruit like Apple, Orange, Barry, Guava, Pineapple, Mango, Banana etc. All fruit are supplied a high amount of nutrients to our body. Fruit cultivation is beneficial than other crop cultivation. Banana cultivation on of them. you can also learn here about Banana – Full Cultivation Guide for Banana Tree.

Source: http://www.agrislide.com/complete-cultivation-guide-of-guava-fruit/

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