Rose is known as the queen of flowers because of its beauty and grace. Garden Roses is the top most cut flower in the world. Rose belongs to the family Rosaceae and its scientific name is Rosa spp. The eight species that have played an important role in the development of modern roses are Rosa chinensis, Rosa damacena, Rosa foetida, Rosa gallica, Rosa gigantea, Rosa moschata, Rosa multiflora and Rosa wichuraiana. In Bangladesh commercially rose is grown in Jessore, Savar, Gazipur, Rangpur, Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar.
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There are many species and varieties of garden roses throughout the world. Development of new variety is always time demanding and as such is a continuous process.
– There are a number of classifications of garden roses. But in general, they are classified into seven classes.
– The Garden Roses of this class have been originated from China. The plants are bushy and stems are weak. Leaves are bright and flower profusely and have a nice tea fragrance. Var. Lady Hillingdon.
– This group has been derived from the crosses between European and Asian roses. The plants are hardy and fast growing. They bear medium to large flowers and have a heavy rose fragrance. These garden roses have good tolerance to heat and cold, e.g., Persian Yellow.
– Flowers of this group are most modern and attractive. This group has been created from the hybridization of flowers between the Teas and Hybrid Perpetual. Afterward, new varieties were developed by hybridization among themselves. Hybrid Teas have large blooms on strong stems that make excellent cut flowers. These garden roses are suitable for beds, borders, and in some cases, hedges. Some of them are very fragrant. Hardiness varies with the different varieties,
e.g. Papa Meilland, Garden Party, Tajmahal.
– Polyantha roses are dwarf, low growing, compact bushes that have small, semi- double or double flowers appearing in clusters. It has come from Rosa multiflora class of roses. They bloom continuously throughout the season and make excellent low hedges, mass planting or container plants. These group of garden roses is used in hybridization to develop Floribunda roses, e.g., Ideal.
– This classes of garden roses have mainly occupied the place of old Polyantha. The flowers of this group have been developed from the crosses between Hybrid Tea and Polyantha. Initially, the plants of this group were longer than polyantha and shorter than Hybrid Tea. But later these hybrids were backcrossed with Hybrid Tea which resulted in the development of modern Floribunda which is like Hybrid Tea in height and the flowers are also of good quality,
e.g., City of Belfast, Masquerade.
– Miniatures are naturally dwarf roses and bushy in nature. Leaves are small in size and plants produce small sized flowers profusely. This type of garden roses is suitable for growing in pots and also can be grown in the border of gardens. They are suitable for growing in the hanging basket,
e.g., Cinderella, Baby Gold.
– Rambler roses have come from Rosa multiflora and Rosa wichuraiana and that of climbers have come from Hybrid Tea and Noisette roses. These two are similar in growth habit. These garden roses need support to grow. As such they grow better on gates, porches, arches, pergolas and trellises. Such type of garden roses bear profusely and comes in different colors,
e.g., Golden Shower.
– Generally cold and dry climate is favorable for the production of the garden rose. High temperature and excessive rainfall hamper its growth and quality flower production. The soil pH should be in the range of 6.0 – 7.5. Rose should be grown in sunny places with at least six hours sunlight per day. The south or south facing fields are desirable. The ideal temperature for rose production is between 15 and 280C. The land where waterlogging is a problem or where the water table is high should not be selected.
-Garden roses can be propagated both sexually and asexually. Sexually by seed, asexually by stem cutting, layering, grafting and budding. Generally for developing new variety hybridization technique is followed and which involves seed propagation. When established varieties are propagated commercially vegetative propagation is the best method and “T” budding is the best among them.
– There are thousands of rose varieties in the world. Among those varieties, those are successfully grown in Bangladesh are- Mirandi, Papa Meilland, Garden Party, Double delight, Tajmahal, Paradise, Blue Moon, Montezuma, Tata Center, City of Belfast, Ice berg, Nigrette, Queen Elizabeth.
Garden Roses are either planted on the pit or on the bed of trench. The later technique is followed in the commercial production of rose. The land should be well prepared by plowing and cross plowing followed by laddering at least 2 – 3 weeks before planting and finally the land should be leveled. Then beds of 6.0m x 1.2m or 6.0m x 1.5m should be laid out maintaining a distance of 1.0m between the beds which is later used as drains. These beds are dug into trenches at a depth of 6ocm. This 60cm thickness is differentiated into 3 layers of 20cm each. The soil of top 20cm layer is to be kept on one side and that of middle 20cm is to be kept on another side of the trench.
The soil of the bottom 20cm is to be cultivated by spading and well pulverized and an amount of 20kg well rotten cow dung, 50g TSP and 50g MoP per sq.m should be mixed with this soil. After this @ 20kg cow dung, 100g TSP and 150g MoP per sq.m should be well mixed with the soil of top layer and then to be placed in the middle layer of the trench. Lastly, an amount of 20kg cow dung, 250g MOC, 100g Bone meal, 50g urea and 50g MoP per sq.m is to be mixed with the soil kept from middle layer and the rest of the trench should be filled with it.
After proper dressing of soil, the beds will be about 20cm above the ground level. If garden roses are grown on the pit, a pit of 60cm x 60cm is to be prepared and an amount of 10 kg cow dung, 100g Bone meal, and 50g MoP is to be mixed with the soil of the pit from time to time. The pit is to be finally dressed after 8 – 10 days.
lots of people also face a question that, When is the best time to plant roses?
It depends on the season and climate condition of the cultivated area. October to February is the best time for planting roses in Bangladesh. Grafts of one-year-old are the best material for planting. All dried branches and the stalks of the flowers are to be removed. Then the grafts with a soil ball should be placed at the middle of the pit in such a way that the graft joint remains just above the soil. After planting the soil around the graft should be pressed down hard. Spacing for different classes of roses are 75 – 100cm for Hybrid Tea, 70 – 80cm for Floribunda, 45 – 60cm for Polyantha and 75 – 100cm for Climber and Rambler.
– Any branches coming out from the root stock is to be removed at the sight. Such branches can be identified by its morphological characters such as the number of leaflets in a leaf, color and fast nature of growth etc.
– Pruning roses are essential for the development of strong branch and effective flowering. This is done once in a year and is done from mid-September to mid-October in Bangladesh. Apart from this only diseased or insect affected or any unwanted branches are removed as and when becomes necessary.
In the case of Hybrid Tea heavy pruning should be done i.e., all branches should be removed at a height of 30cm from the ground. Only a number of strong thick branches having 4 – 8 nodes are kept.
In the case of Floribunda and Polyantha light pruning is done only by cutting half the length of new branches. A very light pruning should be given to the Climbers and Ramblers.
In this case 1 – 2 thick branches are pruned every 3 – 4 years interval. Immediately after pruning the cut surface should be treated with either copper oxychloride or cupravit to protect them from the attack of diseases.
After pruning soil around each plant at a distance of 20cm from the base should be removed. The depth should be 10 – 15cm so that the main thick roots are exposed to sun and air which helps plants to go to dormancy. This is known as wintering. During this operation, a couple of roots may become distorted, but this will not do harm to the plant. The pruned plants should be left in this condition for 8 – 10 days and then the soil kept aside should be mixed with 5kg cow dung, 100g bone meal, 50g TSP and 25g MoP and this manured soil should be placed back into the hole around each plant. This should be followed by heavy irrigation. No further fertilizer application will be until the new growth of plants starts. Liquid manure should be applied at an interval of 7 days during new growth and flowering. Instead of liquid manure a handful of mixed fertilizer ( 2 parts urea + 2 parts TSP + ½ parts MoP ) may be applied per plant.
– For immediate use after picking half-opened flowers should be harvested. If they are used after a number of days the flowers should be harvested at fully matured bud stages which have taken full color. For the cut flower, Garden Roses should be harvested with a long stem and leaves and the stem should be cut with a sharp knife leaving a smooth cut surface. The flowers should be harvested either early in the morning or in the late evening. The flowers with long stem should be put in a bucket of water leaving the flower in the air and afterward they should be stored in a cool place.