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Genetic mechanisms of yield related morphological markers response to increase grain yield in different environment of hexaploid wheat

Hafiz Ghulam Muhu-Din Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid Saddam, Adeel Khan, Anmol Fatima, Saira Saleem, Mariam Hassan, Siddra Zahid, Mubra Benish

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Department of Plant Genetics, Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan

Key words: genetic architecture, diallel, gene action, epistasis, generation.


image-20150409-15244-9t0k14Wheat is an imperative cereal of the world that plays a remarkable role in meeting the food requirements of human population. Improvement in yield relies upon the identification of genetically superior and suitable genotypes and their exploitation. A 5 × 5 diallel cross using five wheat varieties/lines namely Aas-11, Millat-11, SH-95, 9272 and 9276 was carried out to examine the genetics of yield and yield related morphological traits. All traits shown high level of significance after analysis of variance. Variety SH-95 proved to be the best general combiner for plant height, spike length, spike density, number of grains per spike. Cross 9272 x Milla-11 was the best combiner for number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. SH-95 x 9272 proved to be best specific combiner for flag leaf area, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant. The partitioning of variance into its components exhibited that the magnitude of GCA variance was greater than SCA variance for plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, spike density and number of grains per spike displayed additive type of gene action so improvement and selection will be possible in early generation. Early selection would be difficult for 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant because SCA variance was greater than GCA variances showed dominance effects.


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