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Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Papaya is an importance fruit and vegetable to the people. It can be use as vegetable on the young stages of fruit and also use as a fruit after maturity. It contains very low amount of Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. It also provides a rich amount of Vitamin A, B6, B12 C, D, Calcium, Iron and Magnesium. You will learn all about Importance of papaya cultivation, uses of papaya, production technology etc in this Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit” .

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Table of Contents [hide]

  • 1 Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit
    • 1.1 Importance of Papaya Cultivation:
    • 1.2 Composition and uses
    • 1.3 Characteristics of Shahi Pepe
    • 1.4 Production Technology of Papaya
      • 1.4.1 Soil and Climate
      • 1.4.2 Land Preparation
      • 1.4.3 Raising of seedling
      • 1.4.4 Number of seedling required
      • 1.4.5 Pit preparation
      • 1.4.6 Time of seed sowing and transplanting
      • 1.4.7 Transplanting
      • 1.4.8 Top dressing of fertilizers
      • 1.4.9 Weeding
      • 1.4.10 Irrigation and drainage
      • 1.4.11 Removal of extra plants
      • 1.4.12 Fruit thinning
    • 1.5 Diseases, insect pests and remedy
      • 1.5.1 Damping off and collar rot
      • 1.5.2 Anthracnose
      • 1.5.3 Papaya mosaic virus
      • 1.5.4 Ring spot virus
      • 1.5.5 Mealy bug
      • 1.5.6 Nematode
    • 1.6 Nutrient deficiency problem
      • 1.6.1 B deficiency
      • 1.6.2 Zn deficiency
      • 1.6.3 S deficiency
    • 1.7 Harvesting

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Importance of Papaya Cultivation:

  • An important quick growing fruit of Bangladesh, India and others country.
  • Present production is 105000 tons from 7700 ha in Bangladesh
  • It is a highly problematic, complicated and interesting fruit crop from botanical, genetical, cytogenetical and horticultural points of view
  • Can be cultivated successfully in small space of homestead

Composition and uses

  • Very rich in vitamins like vitamin A, B & C and minerals like P & Ca
  • Possesses high medicinal value
  • The ripe fresh fruits are used as dessert and green fruits are used as vegetable. Jam, soft drinks, ice-cream flavoring etc can be prepared from ripe fruit

Characteristics of Shahi Pepe

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Sexuality : Dioecious

Plant height: 1.6-2.0 m

Bearing habit: Start bearing from near to ground level

Fruit weight: 850-1000 g

Flesh thickness: 2 cm

Flesh color: Deep Orange

Seeds per fruit: 500-530

TSS: 12%

Number of fruits/plant: 40-60

Yield: 50 tons

Production Technology of Papaya

Soil and Climate

  • Well drained loam to sandy-loam soil rich in organic matter
  • Papaya thrives well on soil with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.0
  • Plants are highly sensitive to flooding
  • It has been ranked as not tolerant or extremely sensitive to salt stress
  • The optimum temperature for papaya is 210 to 33C
  • Papaya is classified as a shade avoiding species

Land Preparation

  • Land should be prepared well
  • For quick drainage bed system must be followed
  • Bed should be 1.7 m wide and 20-25 cm high
  • There should be 30 cm drain in between two beds
  • The length of bed will be as per land
  • Bed should be raised before pit preparation

Raising of seedling

  • Seeds should be sown in 10 cm apart rows in seed beds at 3-4 cm distance and 1.0-1.5 cm depth
  • Seeds are also sown in perforated poly bags (15 ´ 10 cm) filled with 50% river silt and 50% cow-dung
  • 2-3 seeds are advised to sow in each poly bag
  • Seeds should be soaked in water for several hours before sowing
  • Watering should be done at 2-3 days interval after seed sowing

Number of seedling required

  • Pits are prepared at 2 m apart in the beds (2 × 2 m spacing) and three seedlings are transplanted in each pit. So, a total of 7500 seedlings are required for 2500 pits per hectare

Pit preparation

  • Pit size should be 60 ´ 60 ´ 45 cm
  • Manure and fertilizers like cow-dung 15 kg, TSP 500g, gypsum 250g, boric acid 20 g, zinc sulphate 20 g are to be applied per pit 10-15 days before transplanting

Time of seed sowing and transplanting

  • September-October and December-January are two suitable time for seed sowing
  • Seedlings become ready for transplanting at 40-50 days after sowing

Transplanting

  • Three seedlings are to be planted per pit at 30 cm distance in triangular form
  • In case of monoecious type one seedling is planted per pit
  • Poly bag is to be removed carefully keeping ball undisturbed
  • Seedlings are to be placed in the same depth as it was in the bed or in the poly bag

Top dressing of fertilizers

  • 450-500 g each of urea and MP are to be applied per pit
  • 50 g urea and 50 g MP are to be top dressed at one month interval starting from one month after planting
  • The doses should be doubled after flowering
  • Irrigation is essential following top dressing in dry season

Weeding

  • Papaya field should always be kept weed – free
  • In the rainy season weeding should be done by ‘Hasua’ or lawn mower without loosening the soil

Irrigation and drainage

  • Frequent light irrigation is required during dry season
  • During rainy season quick drainage must be ensured

Removal of extra plants

  • After fruit set two plants from each pit are to be removed keeping the best female plant
  • 5% male should be allowed to facilitate pollination

Fruit thinning

  • Most of the papaya varieties bear 2-3 fruits per cluster
  • Extra fruits should be thinned out keeping the best one only
  • In 2nd or following years, the plant bears overcrowded fruit. The smaller fruits needs to be pruned

Diseases, insect pests and remedy

Damping off and collar rot

  • Serious disease of papaya in the seed bed and causes considerable damage to the crop during rainy season.
  • Damp growing condition favors the disease.

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Remedy

  • Seed treatment with Vitavax or Captan @ 2-3 g per kg of seed
  • Sterilization of nursery bed by burning saw dust or rice hull (6 cm thick)
  • Soil amendment by poultry litre @ 5 t/ha
  • Solarization of the bed prior to seed sowing
  • Drenching of Ridomoil MZ @ 2 g/L

Anthracnose

  • Brown lesions are appeared on fruits which enlarges with the development of fruit

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Remedy

  • Spraying of Knowin or Topsin @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval

Papaya mosaic virus

  • Yellow patches are appeared on leaves and fruits, bending of petiole and plant growth become stunted
  • The disease is transmitted by aphid

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Ring spot virus

  • The affected plants are in growth, show yellow mottling and distortion of leaves, bending down of petiole followed by death of the plant
  • Oil soaked ring spots are found on stem and fruits. Diseased plants yield little or no crop
  • The disease is transmitted by aphids

Control measure

  • Uprooting and burning of diseased plant
  • Control of vector

Mealy bug

  • Mealy bugs suck on leaves, fruits and weaken the plants. Plant growth and yield are affected seriously
  • They also cause sooty mould secreting honey dew

Remedy

  • Clean cultivation, destruction of infested leaves and fruits with insects
  • Application of Dimethoate 40EC (Perfecthion/ Taphgar) @ 2 ml/L 2-3 times at 15 days interval

Nematode

  • Nematodes cause root-knot in papaya. The affected plants become weak and dwarf
  • They also facilitate entrance of soil borne pathogen
  • Infected roots, rain and irrigation water help dissemination of nematode

Remedy

  • Crop rotation with mustard, ground nut, wheat or maize
  • Application of Furadan 3G @ 5g per pit
  • Soil amendment with poultry liter @ 3 t/ha or MOC @ 300 kg/ha

Nutrient deficiency problem

B deficiency

  • Papaya is highly sensitive to B
  • B deficiency creates three symptoms i) curling of leaves, ii) secretion of latex from developing fruits and iii) deformation of fruits

Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit

Remedy

  • Application of boric acid @ 20 g/pit
  • Spraying of boric acid @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval when symptoms are appeared on plants or fruits

Zn deficiency

  • The plants turn mixed colour of white-green. Leaf venation show white net like appearance.

Remedy

  • Spraying of ZnO to leaves @ 2g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval

S deficiency

  • Leaves turn yellow, the plants become weak and show stunted growth. The symptom resembles mosaic virus disease

Remedy

  • Spraying of Thiovit or Cumulas @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval

Harvesting

  • When the latex of the fruit becomes almost watery, the fruits is considered ready for harvest
  • Fruits for local market can be harvested when they are half ripe
  • Yellow bands are appeared on fruit surface
  • The first crop of fruits is harvested in 12-14 months after transplanting
  • Fruit should be harvested in the morning
  • Fruits can be dipped in hot water at 55C for 5 minutes

Source: http://www.agrislide.com/step-by-step-production-technology-of-papaya-fruit/

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